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  as a result

  He never studied hard, and as a result he failed in the last examination.

  as a result of

  He is late for work as a result of traffic accident.


  He wanted to buy a radio for study English, and accordingly her mother bought it for him.


  We are delayed because of a traffic jam.

  due to

  His success is due to his excellent work.

  owing to

  Owing to his absence, our meeting is not held.

  thanks to

  Thanks to a good teacher, she passed the examination.

  now that

  Now that you have grown up, you must earn for yourself.

  so long as

  You could realize your dream so long as you try it again and again.


  Since you are here now, you,d better give a hand.

  in that

  The policy is harmful in that it may encourage people to give up.

  so that

  The office speaks at the top of his voice so that every soldier could hear him.


  There is a calculating mistakes there, therefore, the answer is wrong.


  as a matter of fact

  I will go there this morning, as a matter of fact, I am only 10 minutes, drive from you.

  as well

  I will go there. My friend will go with me as well.

  frankly speaking

  Frankly speaking, I am not very satisfactory with your words.

  in this case

  In this case, I will go there as soon as possible.


  or else

  Hurry up, or else you,ll be late.


  You must carry this passport, otherwise you will be stopped by the guard.

  if so

  If so, it will make a great difference.


  in addition

  I need your help. In addition, I also need her support.


  First, we must work hard. Besides, we must work with a creative mind.

  and moreover

  The hat is the right size for you, and moreover, it goes well with your skin.

  that is to say

  The stock price is declining, that is to say, I am losing money.

  in other words

  I am not hungry, in other words, I really dislike the food in this canteen.

  equally important

  You should read more news from newspapers, and equally important, keep an eye on the news from the radio.

  what,s more

  It is harmful to my health, and what,s more, it is no good to my work.

  last but not least

  Last but bot least, my thanks should go to every member of my class.



  As a teacher, I should teach well, but equally, I should study well.

  in the same way

  It is such a coincidence that we figure it out in the same way.

  in contrast to

  In contrast to your belief, I quite disagree with you.


  If you don’t go, I,ll go instead.

  on the contrary

  You thought I like it. On the contrary, I dislike it.

  in contrast

  It is hot in the daytime, but in contrast it,s very cold at night.


  We are happy in China, while most Africans live unhappily.


  一、Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V Nothing is + more +形容词+ than to + V

  例句:Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。

  二、~ the + ~ est +名词+(that)+主词+ have ever + seen(known/heard/had/read,etc)

  ~ the most +形容词+名词+(that)+主词+ have ever +



  Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。

  Mr. Chang is the kindest teacher that I have ever had. 张老师是我曾经遇到最仁慈的教师。

  三、~~~ cannot emphasize the importance of ~~~ too much.(再怎么强调……的重要性也不为过。)

  例句:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.


  四、There is no denying that + S + V……(不可否认的……)

  例句:There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad

  to worse.


  五、It is universally acknowledged that +句子~~(全世界都知道……)

  例句:It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us.


  六、There is no doubt that +句子~~(毫无疑问的……)

  例句:There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be



  七、An advantage of ~~~ is that +句子(……的优点是……)

  例句:An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won't

  create(produce)any pollution.


  八、The reason why +句子~~~ is that +句子(……的原因是……)

  例句:The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with

  fresh air.

  The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for



  九、So +形容词+ be +主词+ that +句子(如此……以致于……)

  例句:So precious is time that we can't afford to waste it.时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。

  十、Adj + as + Subject(主词)+ be,S + V~~~(虽然……)

  例句:Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means

  satisfactory. {by no means = in no way = on no account一点也不}


  十一、The + ~er + S + V,~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~

  The + more + Adj + S + V,~~~ the + more + Adj + S + V ~~~(愈……愈……)

  例句:The harder you work,the more progress you make.  你愈努力,你愈进步。

  The more books we read,the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。

  十二、By +Ving,~~ can ~~(借着……,……能够……   例句

  By taking exercise,we can always stay healthy. 借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。

  十三、~~~ enable + Object(受词)+ to + V(……使……能够……)

  例句:Listening to music enable us to feel relaxed.   听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。

  十四、On no account can we + V ~~~(我们绝对不能……)

  例句:On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge.


  十五、It is time + S +过去式(该是……的时候了)

  例句:It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the

  traffic problems.


  十六、Those who ~~~(……的人……)


  Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished.违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。

  十七、There is no one but ~~~(没有人不……)

  例句:There is no one but longs to go to college.   没有人不渴望上大学。

  十八、be + forced/compelled/obliged + to + V(不得不……)

  例句:Since the examination is around the corner,I am compelled to give up

  doing sports.


  十九、It is conceivable that +句子(可想而知的)

  It is obvious that +句子(明显的)

  It is apparent that +句子(显然的)

  例句:It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life.


  二十、That is the reason why ~~~(那就是……的原因)

  例句:Summer is sultry. That is the reason why I don't like it.


  二十一、For the past +时间,S +现在完成式……(过去……年来,……一直……)

  例句:For the past two years,I have been busy preparing for the examination.


  二十二、Since + S +过去式,S +现在完成式。

  例句:Since he went to senior high school,he has worked very hard.


  二十三、It pays to + V ~~~(……是值得的。)

  例句:It pays to help others.   帮助别人是值得的。

  二十四、be based on(以……为基础)

  例句:The progress of thee society is based on harmony.  社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。

  二十五、Spare no effort to + V(不遗余力的)

  例句:We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.


  二十六、bring home to +人+事(让……明白……事)

  例句:We should bring home to people the value of working hard.


  二十七、be closely related to ~~(与……息息相关)

  例句:Taking exercise is closely related to health.   做运动与健康息息相关。

  二十八、Get into the habit of + Ving = make it a rule to + V(养成……的习惯)

  例句:We should get into the habit of keeping good hours.  我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。

  二十九、Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + N/Ving,~~~(因为……)

  例句:Thanks to his encouragement,I finally realized my dream.


  三十、What a + Adj + N + S + V!= How + Adj + a + N + V!(多么……!)

  例句:What an important thing it is to keep our promise!

  How important a thing it is to keep our promise!遵守诺言是多么重要的事!

  三十一、Leave much to be desired(令人不满意)

  例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired. 我们的交通状况令人不满意。

  三十二、Have a great influence on ~~~(对……有很大的影响)

  例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health. 抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。

  三十三、do good to(对……有益),do harm to(对……有害)

  例句:Reading does good to our mind. 读书对心灵有益。

  Overwork does harm to health. 工作过度对健康有害。

  三十四、Pose a great threat to ~~(对……造成一大威胁)

  例句:Pollution poses a great threat to our existence. 污染对我们的生存造成一大威胁。

  三十五、do one's utmost to + V = do one’s best(尽全力去……)

  例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life.我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标

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