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初中英语分词知识点总结

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初中英语分词知识点总结,初三年级面对中考有哪些办法,轻轻家教为大家搜集信息如下,希望对您有所帮助。

初中英语分词知识点总结(一)

  分词:

  就是具有动词及形容词二者特征的词;尤指以-ing或-ed,-d,-t,-en或-n结尾的英语动词性形容词,具有形容词功能,同时又表现各种动词性特点,

  如时态,语态、带状语性修饰语的性能及带宾语的性能。

  分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式。

  现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于:

  现在分词表示"主动和进行",过去分词表示"被动和完成"(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动,只表示完成)。

  分词可以有自己的状语、宾语或逻辑主语等。

  现在分词构成形式:

  ①一般在动词原形末尾加ing,如do→doing、sing→singing、comfort→comforting

  ②以不发音的e、ue结尾的动词,先去e,再加ing,如dance→dancing、hike→hiking、write→writing、make→ making,take→taking

  ③以ee、oe、ye结尾的动词加ing,如see→seeing、toe→toeing、dye→dyeing

  ④以重读闭音节结尾的动词,并且末尾只有一个辅音字母,应双写这一字母,再加ing,如cut→cutting、swim→swimming

  注:结尾是x则不必双写,如relax→relaxing

  ⑤以ie结尾的动词,要把ie变成y再加ing,如die→dying,lie→lying.

  ⑥以ic结尾的动词,要把ic变成ick再加ing,如picnic→picnicking,traffic→trafficking

  过去分词构成形式:

  1.规则动词:规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。四点变化规则:

  (1)、一般动词,在词尾直接加“ ed ”。(然而要注意的是,过去分词并不是过去式)

  work---worked---worked , visit---visited---visited

  (2)、以不发音的“ e ” 结尾的动词,只在词尾加“ d ”。

  live---lived---lived

  (3)、以“辅音字母 + y ”结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加“ ed ”。

  study---studied---studied,cry---cried---cried,try---tried---tried,fry---fried---fried.[1]

  (4)、重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加“ ed ”。

  stop---stopped---stopped , drop---dropped--dropped

  (5)、以ic结尾的动词,要把ic变成ick再加ed,

  picnic→picnicked ,traffic→trafficked

  2 、不规则动词:见不规则动词表

  分词用法:

  1、分词作状语

  分词在句子中作状语,可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。

  分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语应与句中主语相一致。

  当现在分词表示的动作发 生在谓语动词之前时, 则用现在分词的完成式,且所表示动作与谓语动作同时发生, 则用现在分词的一般式。

  完成或被动关系用过去分词。

  ①现在分词:

  The students went out of the classroom, laughing and talking.

  ②过去分词:

  Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station.

  Given better attention, the plants could grow better.

  2、“while ( when, once, until, if , though等连词)+分词”结构

  现在分词或过去分词作状语时,有时可以在分词前加while,when, once, although, until, if等连词。

  ①现在分词:

  When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us.

  While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work……

  ②过去分词:

  Once recovered, he threw himself into his work and made every effort to do it well.

  Although working very hard, he failed to pass the final exam. If translated word by word, the passage will be difficult to understand.

  3、分词作定语

  分词作定语时,单个的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前,分词短语一般置于所修饰的中心词后面。

  现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(即与名词有主谓关系),过去分词修饰承受该动作的名词(即与名词是动宾关系)。

  We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund.

  This is really an exhausting day to all of us!

  We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight.

  After a night spent in excitement and sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day.

  More and more developing countries established strategic partnership with developed countries

  4、分词作宾语补足语

  现在分词在see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse, glance等感官动词和look at, listen to等短语动词以及

  have, keep, get, catch, leave, set, start, send等使役动词后面与名词或代词构成复合宾语,作宾语补语的成分。

  例:I see him passing my house every day.

  I caught him stealing things in that shop.

  I smelt something burning.

  5、分词作表语

  分词作表语通常看作形容词来用。

  过去分词表示主语的感受或状态,主语多为人。现在分词表示主语的性质,而且主语多为物;

  ①过去分词:

  We were so bored that we couldn’t help yawning.

  She felt confused, and even frightened.

  ②现在分词:

  He was very amusing.

  That book was rather boring.

  很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语:

  exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.

     初中英语分词知识点总结(二)

  分词的时态

  1)与主语动词同时,

  Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。

  Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。

    典型例题

  The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.

  A. to prepare  B. preparing  C. prepared  D. was preparing

  答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B,C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主动关系,应用现在分词。

    2)先于主动词

  While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。

  分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用having done。

  Having finished his homework, he went out.

  =As he had finished his homework, he went out.

  做完作业后,他出去了。

    典型例题

  ___ a reply, he decided to write again.

  A. Not receiving  B. Receiving not  C. Not having received  D. Having not received

  答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成 为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

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