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初中英语不定式知识点总结

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初中英语不定式知识点总结,初三年级面对中考有哪些办法,轻轻家教为大家搜集信息如下,希望对您有所帮助。

初中英语不定式知识点总结(一)

  动词不定式是初中英语的语法重点之一,也是每年中考英语试题的考点之一。它是动词的一种非谓语形式,没有人称和数的变化,不能单独作句子的谓语。其构成形式为"to+动词原形",to为动词不定式的符号,本身无意义。动词不定式具有两大特点:

  1.具有动词的特点,因此,后面可以跟表语、宾语或状语,构成动词不定式短语。

  2.具有名词、形容词或副词的特点,可以在句子中用作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、表语及同位语等。下面以近几年全国部分省市的中考英语试题为例,对不定式的难点以及它在中考英语中的考查点,作一简要的总结和分析,供同学们学习时参考。

  一、动词不定式作主语

  1.It'sour duty _________ the room every day.

  A. to clean B. cleaned C. clean D.cleans(甘肃省)

  2. It's hard for us _________ English well.

  A. learn B. learns C. to learn D.learning(江西省)

  3.建造这座立交桥将花费工人们一年多的时间。

  It will _________ the workers over a year _________ _________ the flyover.(北京市海淀区)

  4.It'svery nice _________ you to get me two tickets _________ the World Cup.

  A. for,of B. of,for C. to,for D. of,to(安徽省)

  Keys:1. A 2. C 3. take,to,build 4. B

  [简析]动词不定式作主语时,可以直接放在谓语动词前面的主语位置,也可以用先行词it作形式主语,而将真正的主语(不定式)置于后面。常见的句式有:(1)It is +形容词(ofsb)to dosth.(2)It is +名词(forsb)to dosth.(3)It takessbsome time to dosth.(4)It is +形容词(forsb)to dosth.句式(1)中常用nice,kind,clever,good,right,wrong,foolish,careless等形容词,与介词of搭配,这些形容词常表述不定式逻辑主语的属性或性质;句式(4)中常用hard,difficult,easy,important等形容词,与介词for搭配,表示不定式表示的动作、行为的性质。

  二、动词不定式作宾语

  1. He wants ______ some vegetables.

  A. buy B. buying C. to buy D. buys (山西省)

  2. Don't forget ______ your homework with you when you come to school.

  A. to bring B. bringing C. to take D. taking (福建省)

  3. He found it very difficult ______.

  A. sleeping B.sleepsC.sleptD. to fall asleep (湖南省)

  Keys:1. C 2.A 3.D

  [简析]在want,like,agree,hope,wish,learn,begin,start,seem,decide,hate,choose,forget,remember等动词后面,可以接不定式作宾语。如果其后接形容词补足语时,则可以用it作形式宾语,而把作真正宾语的不定式放到后面。

  三、动词不定式作宾语补足语

  1. Robert often asks us ______ his Chinese, so his Chinese is much better than before.

  A. helphimB. to help him with C. to help with D. helps him with (江苏省)

  2.MrLi often teaches his Japanesefriends______ Chinese food.

  A. cook B. cooks C. to cook D. cooked (甘肃省)

  Key:1. B 2. C

  [简析]不定式可以用作宾语补足语。后面可以接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:ask,teach,expect,tell,allow等。

  四、动词不定式作状语

  1. She went ______ her teacher.

  A. to see B. looks C. saw D. seeing (江西省)

  2.Meimeilikes English very much. She does her best ______ English well.

  A. learn B. learning C. to learn D. learns (四川省)

  Key:1. A 2. C

  [简析]go,come,try,do / try one's best等动词或短语动词作谓语时,其后常常可以接不定式作目的状语。

  3. I'm sorry ______ that.

  A. hears B. hearing C. hear D. to hear (河北省)

  4. I'm sorry ______ you.

  A. trouble B. to trouble C. troubling D. troubled (吉林省)

  5. My mother was very glad ______ her old friend.

  A. to meet B. meet C. met D. meets (甘肃省)

  Keys:3. D 4.B 5.A

  [简析]"be +形容词+ to dosth"结构中的不定式作状语,常表示原因或方式。

  6. The panda is so fat that it can't go through the hole.(改为意思相同的句子)

  Thehole______ ______ ______ ______ such a fat panda to go through. (广东省)

  7. The ice on the lake was so thin that people couldn't skate on it. (改为意思相同的句子)

  The ice on the lake wasn't ______ enough ______ people ______ ______ ______. (广东省)

  Keys:6. is,too,small,for 7. thick,for,to,skate,on

  [简析]在上述"too +形容词/副词(forsb)to do…"(太……而不能……)和"enough (forsb) to do…"(足以、足够……做……)结构中,不定式作结果状语。

  五、动词不定式作定语

  1. Would you like something ______?

  A. drink B. drinking C. to drink D. drinks (湖北省)

  2. I have a lot of homework ______.

  A. do B. doing C. did D. to do (河南省)

  3. He is not an easy man ______.

  A. get on B. to get on C. get on with D. to get on with (山东省)

  Key:1. C 2.D 3.D

  [简析]不定式作定语时,常放在被修饰的词语之后,与被修饰的词语为逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系;如果不定式的动词是不及物动词,其后要加上必要的介词或副词,构成的短语动词相当于及物动词。

  六、不带to的动词不定式

  1. We saw him ______ the building and go upstairs.

  A. to enter B. enter C. entering D. entered (河南省)

  2. So much work usually makes them ______ very tired.

  A. to feel B. feels C. feeling D. feel (吉林省)

  3. Your father is sleeping. You'd better ______.

  A. not wake up him B. not to wake up him

  C. not wake him up D. not to wake him up (陕西省)

  4. I was made ______ my homework in the afternoon.

  A. do B. doing C. to do D. did (贵州省)

  Key:1. B 2.D 3.C 4.C

  [简析]1.在see,watch,hear,feel等感官动词和make,have,let等使役动词后面作宾语补足语的不定式不带to.但是在被动语态中,作主语补足语的不定式要带to(let没有被动语态)。2.在"had better"后面接不带to的不定式。

  七、动词不定式的否定形式

  1.MrBlack asked the man ________ the queue.

  A. not to jump B. to not jump C. didn't jump D. not jump (广西壮族自治区)

  2. The old man told the child ______ noisy.

  A. not be B. not to be C. to not be D. be not (湖北省)

  3. There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late.

  A. have,not to be B. have,not be

  C. be,not to be D. be,not be (内蒙古自治区)

  Key:1. A 2.B 3.C

  [简析]动词不定式的否定形式通常是在不定式符号to的前面加上not,如果是不带to的不定式就直接在动词原形前面加上not.

  八、某些动词后面接不定式和接动词-ing形式的区别

  1. Please stop ______ a rest if you feel tired.

  A. to have B. having C. have D. has (广西壮族自治区)

  2. ——Whydidn't you buy some bread on your way home?

  ——Sorry, I forgot ______ some money with me.

  A. take B. taking C. to take D. took (湖北省)

  3. ——Let'shave a rest, shall we?

  ——Notnow, I can't stop ______ the letters.

  A.writeB. to write C. writing D. and write (湖北省)

  4. Jim was badly hurt, so he had to stop ______ (walk). (用所给单词的正确形式填空)(四川省)

  Key:1. A 2.C 3.C 4.walking

  [简析]一些常见的动词后面接不定式和接动词的-ing形式的区别如下:"stop to dosth"意为"停止正在做的事情去做另外一件事","stop doingsth"意为"停止正在做的事":"remember to dosth"意为"记住去做某事"(事还未做),"remember doingsth"意为"记得做过某事"(事已做):"go on to dosth"意为"接着做某事"(做完一事,接着做另一事),"go on doingsth"意为"继续做某事"(一事未做完接着往下做):"forget to dosth"意为"忘了做某事"(事还未做),"forget doingsth"意为"忘了曾做过某事"(事已做)。

  5. When I was walking in the street I saw a plane ______ over my head.

  A. flies B. flying C. flew D. to fly (福建省)

  6. A woman saw it ______ when she was walking past.

  A. happen B.happensC. happening D. to happen (黑龙江省)

  Key:5. B 6. A

  [简析]在see,hear,watch,feel等感官动词后面可接不带to的不定式,也可接动词的-ing形式作宾语补足语,用不定式表示动作的全过程(动作已结束),用动词的-ing形式表示动作正在进行(动作尚未结束)。

  九、动词不定式的省略及其符号to的保留

  1. Would you like to go to the cinema with us?

  Yes, ______. What time are we going to meet?

  A. I would B. I would like C. I like to D. I'd like to (浙江省)

  2. Would you like to go for a picnic with us?

  ______. What time are we going to meet?

  A. No, I can't B. Yes, I'm glad C. Yes, I'd love to D. I'd like (大连市)

  Keys:1. D 2. C

  [简析]在口语中,动词不定式中的动词或短语动词在上下文中重复出现时,第二个动词不定式可以省略,但是to不可省略。这种用法常见于"be glad to","would like (love) to","have to"等结构中。

  十、动词不定式的被动式和其他形式

  The new hospital ______ is near the factory.

  A. build B. builds C. to build D. to be built (青海省)

  Key:D

  [简析]当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者(宾语)时,用动词不定式的被动式,即:to be +过去分词;如果不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前,不定式用完成式,即:to have +过去分词;如果不定式表示的动作和谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,用不定式的进行式,即:to be +现在分词​​​​​​​

     初中英语不定式知识点总结(二)

  1.不定式的基本形式与结构

  动词不定式指通常由to加上动词原形 (如to write) 所构成的一种非限定性动词形式,但在有些情况下to可以省略。动词不定式有进行体和完成体(如上to be writing,to have written),也有被动态(如to be written),所有的主动词,不论是及物动词还是不及物动词,也不论是动作动词还是状态动词,都有不定式形式。助动词除be和have外, 没有不定式形式。动词不定式在语法功能上可作主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语。

  2.不定式的用法 1)不定式结构作主语

  1.Te get contact with his family in Taiwan made him extremely happy since they separated more than 40 years ago.

  2.To finish that task in such a short time is really a challenge.

  在上述情况下,如果不定式较长,显得头重脚轻,则可由代词让作形式主语(形式主语it不可由that或this等其他代词代替),而将不定式放到后面。如:

  1.It made him extremely happy to get contact with his family in Taiwan since they separated more than 40 years ago.

  2.John admitted that it is always difficult for him to be on time.

  不定式结构所表示的动作是谁做的,即不定式的逻辑主语,通常可以通过for sb. to do sth. 结构表达:

  1.It is quite important for us to read good books during a general review.

  2.It is not difficult fot those talented students to pass the exam.

  在某些形容词(如careless,clever,considerate,foolish,good,impolite,kind, naughty,nice,silly,stupid等)作表语时,不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语:

  1.It is very kind of you to tell me the truth.

  2.It is stupid of him to do such a silly thing.

  2)不定式作宾语

  不定式作宾语有两种:一种是及物动词后直接跟带to的不定式, 另一种是“及物动词+疑问词+带to的不定式。

  及物动词+带to的不定式结构:

  只能跟动词不定式的动词,常见的有: afford, agree, aim, appear, ask, believe, care,claim,decide demand, desire, determine, expect, fail, happen, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, long, manage, offer, pretend, promise, prepare, refuse, seek, swear, undertake,want, wish等。

  1.He managed to solve the complicated problem.

  2.The stranger offered to show me the way.

  3.Mr. Smith undertook to build a new plant in South Africa.

  动词+疑问代(副)词+不定式:

  这类动词常见的有advise, decide, find out, forget, inquire, know, learn, see, regard, remember, teach, tell, understand, wonder等。常见的疑问代(副)词有: what, when, where, which, how, whether等。

  1.He does not know when to start.

  2.You can decide whether to continue or to stop.

  3.I will show you how to deal with it.

  有时,不定式可由it代替,而把不定式放到后面去。这可以用这一结构表达:动词(如find, think,consider,feel等)+it+ 形容词+不定式。

  1.She considers it necessary to make friends with him.

  2.We find it difficult to finish all the homework before 9 o’clock.

  3)不定式做表语

  一种情况为主语是不定式(表示条件);表语也是不定式(表示结果):

  1.To see is to believe.

  2.To work means to earn a living.

  另一种情况为主语是以aim,duty,hope, idea,job, plan,problem, purpose,thing,wish等名词为中心的短语,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式表语对主语起补充说明作用:;例如:

  1.His aim is to study abroad in the near future.

  2.The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the price.

  3.What I want to say is to forget all the unhappy experience.

  4)不定式作定语

  不定式结构作名词词组修饰语主要有三种类型:

  第一种,被修饰的名词词组是不定式的逻辑宾语。例如:

  1.There was really nothing to fear.

  2.He gave me an interesting book to read.

  如果不定式是不及物动词,后面就得加相应的介词。例如:

  1.Mary needs a friend to play with.

  2.That girl has nothing to worry about.

  3.They have a strict teacher to listen to.

  4.Although the film had been on for ten minutes, I still was not able to find a chair to sit on.

  第二种,被修饰的名词词组是不定式的逻辑主语;例如:

  1.Have you got a key to unlock the door?

  2.The action to be taken is correct.

  3.There is nothing to be gained by pretending.

  第三种,被修饰的名词词组是不定式的同位结构。这类名词通常是表示企图、努力、倾向、目的、愿望、is算、能力、意向等意义的名词:ability, attempt, effort, impulse, inclination,wish等。例如:

  1.Her daughter will make an even bigger effort to please her.

  2.I have no wishto quarrel withyou.

  3.Neither of them had any inclination to do business with Mary.

  5)不定式作状语

  不定式结构在句中作状语通常都能转换为限制性状语从句。例如作原因状语:

  1.They are quite surprised to see the great changes taking place in the area.

  2.They are quite surprised because they see the great changes taking place in the area.

  3.He was lucky to arrive before dark.

  4.He was lucky because he arrived before dark.

  作目的状语:

  1.She raised her voice to be heared better.

  2.She raised her voice so that she could heard better.

  3.We went via Heidelberg to miss the traffic jam.

  4.We went via Heidelberg so that we could miss the traffic jam.

  作结果状语:

  1.The French football team played so successfully as to defeat the Brazilians.

  2.The French football team played so successfully that they even defeated the Brazilians.

  3.He got to the station only to be told the train had gone.

  4.He got to the station and was told that the train had gone.

  不带to的不定式的使用

  动词不定式通常带to,但在有些搭配中不带to,在另一些搭配中可带to可不带to。归纳起来,以下情况下使用不带to不定式:

  1)在can/could, /may/might,will/would,shall/should,must, need,dare等情态动词之后,动词不定式不带to。

  2)在表示感觉意义的动词,如see,feel,watch,notice,smell,hear,observe等后,或是表示“致使”意义的动词,如have,let,make等后,动词不定式不带to。例如:

  1.I often heard him say that he would study hard.

  2.I must have him see his own mistakes.

  但是,当这类结构转换为被动语态时,后面的不带to不定式一般转换为带to不定式。

  例如:

  1.He was often heard to say that he would study hard.

  2.After he had finished speaking,he was made to answer innumerable questions.

  3)在动词help之后可用不带to的不定式,也可用带to的不定式。例如:

  1.Help the old lady (to) carry the heavy box.

  4)在had better,would rather,may/might as well,rather than,can not but等搭配之后,动词不定式也不带to。例如:

  1.Unless you feel to ill to go out,I would rather not stay at home tonight.

  2.She could not but criticize his foolish behaviour.

  5)在make do,make believe,let drop,1et fall,1et fly,let slip,let drive,let go off,hear say,hear tell,leave go of等固定搭配中,用不带to的动词不定式。例如:

  1.They let go of the rope.他们松开了绳子。

  2.John let fly a torrent of abuse at me.约翰朝我痛骂了一顿。

  3.I've heard tell of him.我听说过他。

  4.Some of the faculty were let go for lack of the students.由于生源不足,一些教职员工被解雇了。

  6)在介词but,except之后,如果其前有动词do的某种形式,其后不定式一般不带to,反之则必须带to,表示“不得不,只能”。例如:

  1.He will do anything except work on the farm.

  2.There was nothing left for the enemy to do but surrender.

  3.The spy was both hungry and cold;there was nothing left for him but to give in.

  4.I had no choice but to wait till it stopped raining.

  下面一些短语是固定搭配,不带to:

  can not help but,can not choose but,can not but,do nothing but,have nothing to do but。例如:

  I can not but admire his courage.

  如果上述句中有do,to省略:

  I did nothing but watch TV last night.

  如果是下面一个固定搭配,就带to:

  I have no choice but to give up my idea.

  7)紧跟在why或why not之后的动词不定式总是不带to。但是,紧跟在who,what,which,whether等连接词后的不定式带to。例如:

  Why stand up if you can sit down?

  Why not ask your teacher when you don't understand the meaning?

  You needn't decide yet whether to study arts or science.

  4.不定式的完成式和进行式

  1)构成

  完成式:to+ have done

  进行式:to+ be doing

  2)用法

  完成式:如果不定式所表示的动作(状态)发生在主要谓语动作之前,那么不定式就要用其完成式。

  进行式:如果主要谓语动作(情况)发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在发生,那么不定式就要用其进行式。例如:

  1.She feels relaxed to have finished writing her thesis before the deadline.

  2.The Vikings are believed to have discovered America.

  3.When you called me last night, I happened to be working on the computer.

  5.不定式的被动形式

  当不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动形式,包括它的一般式和完成式。例如:

  1.For twelve years, Spanish censorship did not allow Lorca's name to be mentioned and his work to be published.

  2.The snow was supposed to have been blown off the mountain.

  6.不定式的否定形式

  否定形式是在不定式的标志to前加not。例如:

  1.I decided not to ask him again.

  2.Please remember not to leave the lights on when you are out.​​​​​​​

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